The photovoltaic solar energy is a renewable energy that you obtain electricity from the through the sunrays. They are captured by metallic plates named photovoltaic cells. These cells are covered with a special material that produces a photoelectric effect, that is to say, they absorb light photons and produce electrons that are captured, producing an electric current.
Types of solar installations
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COMPONENTS – Photovoltaic system:
The solar panels turn the light of the sun into electricity. They are covered with a material that absorbs the light photons and produce electrons. So the solar radiation is captured and turned into current electricity (12 V, 24 V or 48 V). They can be installed on inclined or flat roofs, in a follower or simply on the ground in any not shaded spot.
As its name indicates, it controls the voltage produced by the solar panels for the correct loading of the batteries; it protects them from overloading and also of a deep discharge.
It also manages the load intensity to lengthen the useful life of the batteries.
Even there is some regulators that store the information that allows to know which has been the evolution of the installation during a period of time.
The batteries have to store during the day the necessary energy for the night or cloudy days, for electricity (12 V, 24 V or 48 V depending on the installation). Exist different types of batteries like “monoblock” and lead acid (deep cycle discharge) which always needs a minimum level of distilled water or the gel batteries that do not need this maintenance.
The inverter is the brain of the system, it controls all the functions of the installation, managing every moment the demand of energy necessary for the consumption and the sources of loading (panels, wind turbine) or the system of support (generator, combined heat power systems CHP). It also transforms the direct current (DC) of 12 V, 24 V or 48 V to alternating current (AC) 230 V or 400 V and in case of loading the batteries with electricity (if available) or from the auxiliary support system.
The generators can be a diesel engine or gasoline, it is the support for the installation in moments of high electrical consumption or when the batteries does not have enough electricity (low battery) with 1.500 or 3.000 r.p.m. (revolutions per minute), cooled by air or water. The ones by water cooled can be soundproofed or not (also exist special silenced exhaust pipes for residential areas).
In any photovoltaic installation it is also possible to put a small wind turbine as support for the photovoltaic system to provide energy from the wind in moments when there is no sun, during the night, when the weather is bad or when it is very cloudy. There exist different types and designs that provide a wide range of potency from 400 W up to 1.000.000 W.